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Chemical Component Summary

NameALPHA-ACARBOSE
Identifiers(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-5-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-5-[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl-5-[[(1S,4R,5S,6S)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-yl]amino]oxan-2-yl]oxy-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4-triol
FormulaC25 H43 N O18
Molecular Weight645.61 g/mol
TypeSACCHARIDE
Isomeric SMILESC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[C@@H]2[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O[C@@H]3[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]3O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1N[C@H]1C=C(CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChIInChI=1S/C25H43NO18/c1-6-11(26-8-2-7(3-27)12(30)15(33)13(8)31)14(32)19(37)24(40-6)43-22-10(5-29)42-25(20(38)17(22)35)44-21-9(4-28)41-23(39)18(36)16(21)34/h2,6,8-39H,3-5H2,1H3/t6-,8+,9-,10-,11-,12-,13+,14+,15+,16-,17-,18-,19-,20-,21-,22-,23+,24-,25-/m1/s1
InChIKeyXUFXOAAUWZOOIT-WVJZLWNXSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count87
Chiral Atom Count19
Chiral AtomsC1A,C1B,C1C,C1D,C2A,C2B,C2C,C2D,C3A,C3B,C3C,C3D,C4A,C4B,C4C,C4D,C5B,C5C,C5D
Bond Count90
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving AtomsO1D

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00284 Different stereochemistry
NameAcarbose
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
DescriptionAn inhibitor of alpha glucosidase that retards the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine and hence reduces the increase in blood-glucose concentrations after a carbohydrate load. It is given orally to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients where diet modification or oral hypoglycemic agents do not control their condition. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Synonyms
  • Acarbosa
  • Acarbose
  • Acarbosum
  • Glucobay
  • Precose
Brand Names
  • Acarbose
  • Glucobay
  • Precose
  • Prandase
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor treatment and management of diabetes type II (used in combination therapy as a second or third line agent)
PharmacologyUsed to reduce blood gluose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acarbose is a complex oligosaccharide that delays the digestion of ingested carbohydrates, thereby resulting in a smaller rise in blood glucose concentration following meals. Acarbose binds to and inhibits alpha amylase and alpha-gluocside hydrolases. In diabetic patients, this enzyme inhibition results in a delayed glucose absorption and a lowering of postprandial hyperglycemia.
Mechanism of actionAcarbose reversibly bind to pancreatic alpha-amylase and membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucoside hydrolases. These enzymes inhibit hydrolysis of complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine and hydrolysis of oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the brush border of the small intestine.
Route of administrationOral
Categories
  • Alimentary Tract and Metabolism
  • Blood Glucose Lowering Agents
  • Blood Glucose Lowering Drugs, Excl. Insulins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
ATC-Code
  • A10BF01
  • A10BD17
AHFS-Code68:20.02
CAS number56180-94-0
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682