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Chemical Component Summary

NameADENOSINE
Identifiers(2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diol
FormulaC10 H13 N5 O4
Molecular Weight267.24 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESNc1ncnc2n(cnc12)[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChIInChI=1S/C10H13N5O4/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)10-7(18)6(17)4(1-16)19-10/h2-4,6-7,10,16-18H,1H2,(H2,11,12,13)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
InChIKeyOIRDTQYFTABQOQ-KQYNXXCUSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count32
Chiral Atom Count4
Chiral AtomsC1',C2',C3',C4'
Bond Count34
Aromatic Bond Count10
Leaving AtomsO2',HO2'

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00640 Different stereochemistry
NameAdenosine
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
DescriptionA nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-Aminopurin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diol
  • 6-Amino-9-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-purine
  • 9-beta-D-Ribofuranosidoadenine
  • 9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-amine
  • Ade-rib
Brand Names
  • A.H.C. Collagen Cream
  • A.H.C. Collagen Toner
  • A.H.c Real Eye for Face
  • Abalone Aqua Flood Water
  • Abalone
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationUsed as an initial treatment for the termination of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PVST), including that associated with accessory bypass tracts, and is a drug of choice for terminating stable, narrow-complex supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). Also used as an adjunct to thallous chloride TI 201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (thallium stress test) in patients who are unable to exercise adequately, as well as an adjunct to vagal maneuvers and clinical assessment to establish a specific diagnosis of undefined, stable, narrow-complex SVT.
PharmacologyAdenosine is an endogenous nucleoside occurring in all cells of the body and is not chemically related to other antiarrhythmic drugs. Adenosine may exert its pharmacologic effects by activation of purine (cell surface A<sub>1</sub> and A<sub>2</sub> adenosine) receptors, as well as relax vascular smooth muscles through the reduction in calcium uptake by inhibition of slow inward calcium current and activation of adenylate cyclase in smooth muscle cells. Adenosine may reduce vascular tone by modulation of sympathetic neurotransmission. The drug also has negative chronotropic, dromotropic, and inotropic effects on the heart by slowing conduction time throught he AV node and interrupting AV nodal reentry pathways. Adenosine is a potent vasodilator in most vascular beds, but vasoconstriction is produced in renal afferent arterioles and hepatic veins. The drug produces a net mild to moderate reduction in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure and a reflex increase in heart rate. Adenosine is antagonized competitively by methylxanthines such as caffeine and theophylline, and potentiated by blockers of nucleoside transport such as dipyridamole. Adenosine is not blocked by atropine.
Mechanism of actionAdenosine slows conduction time through the AV node and can interrupt the reentry pathways through the AV node, resulting in the restoration of normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), including PSVT associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. This effect may be mediated through the drug's activation of cell-surface A<sub>1</sub> and A<sub>2</sub> adenosine receptors. Adenosine also inhibits the slow inward calcium current and activation of adenylate cyclase in smooth muscle cells, thereby causing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. By increasing blood flow in normal coronary arteries with little or no increase in stenotic arteries (with little to no increase in stenotic arteries), adenosine produces a relative difference in thallous (thallium) chloride TI 201 uptake in myocardium supplied by normal verus stenotic coronary arteries.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous
  • Topical
Categories
  • Adenosine
  • Alkenes
  • Analgesics
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Biological Factors
ATC-CodeC01EB10
AHFS-Code92:00.00
CAS number58-61-7
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682