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Chemical Component Summary

NameCHLORAMPHENICOL
Identifiers2,2-dichloro-N-[(1R,2R)-1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-nitrophenyl)propan-2-yl]ethanamide
FormulaC11 H12 Cl2 N2 O5
Molecular Weight323.13 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESOC[C@@H](NC(=O)C(Cl)Cl)[C@H](O)c1ccc(cc1)[N+]([O-])=O
InChIInChI=1S/C11H12Cl2N2O5/c12-10(13)11(18)14-8(5-16)9(17)6-1-3-7(4-2-6)15(19)20/h1-4,8-10,16-17H,5H2,(H,14,18)/t8-,9-/m1/s1
InChIKeyWIIZWVCIJKGZOK-RKDXNWHRSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count32
Chiral Atom Count2
Chiral AtomsC3,C5
Bond Count32
Aromatic Bond Count6
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00446 Different stereochemistry
NameChloramphenicol
Groups
  • approved
  • vet_approved
DescriptionAn antibiotic first isolated from cultures of <i>Streptomyces venequelae</i> in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Synonyms
  • Chloramex
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chloramphenicolum
  • Chlornitromycin
  • Chlorocid
Salts
  • Chloramphenicol palmitate
  • Chloramphenicol sodium succinate
Brand Names
  • Actinac Pwr
  • Actinac Pws
  • Cebenicol Oph Liq 0.4%
  • Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate
  • Chloromycetin Oph On
Affected Organism
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
  • Gram negative and gram positive bacteria
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Haemophilus influenzae
IndicationUsed in treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases the diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.
PharmacologyChloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that was derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and is now produced synthetically. Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, but due to serious side-effects (e.g., damage to the bone marrow, including aplastic anemia) in humans, it is usually reserved for the treatment of serious and life-threatening infections (e.g., typhoid fever). Chloramphenicol is bacteriostatic but may be bactericidal in high concentrations or when used against highly susceptible organisms. Chloramphenicol stops bacterial growth by binding to the bacterial ribosome (blocking peptidyl transferase) and inhibiting protein synthesis.
Mechanism of actionChloramphenicol is lipid-soluble, allowing it to diffuse through the bacterial cell membrane. It then reversibly binds to the L16 protein of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, where transfer of amino acids to growing peptide chains is prevented (perhaps by suppression of peptidyl transferase activity), thus inhibiting peptide bond formation and subsequent protein synthesis.
Route of administration
  • Auricular (otic)
  • Auricular (otic); Ophthalmic
  • Intramuscular; Intravenous
  • Intravenous
  • Ophthalmic
Categories
  • Alcohols
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antibiotics for Topical Use
  • Benzene Derivatives
ATC-Code
  • G01AA05
  • J01BA01
  • S02AA01
  • S01AA01
  • D10AF03
AHFS-Code
  • 08:12.08
  • 52:04.04
CAS number56-75-7
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682