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Chemical Component Summary

NameDEXAMETHASONE
Identifiers(8S,9R,10S,11S,13S,14S,16R,17R)-9-fluoro-11,17-dihydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyethanoyl)-10,13,16-trimethyl-6,7,8,11,12,14,15,16-octahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
FormulaC22 H29 F O5
Molecular Weight392.46 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESC[C@@H]1C[C@H]2[C@@H]3CCC4=CC(=O)C=C[C@]4(C)[C@@]3(F)[C@@H](O)C[C@]2(C)[C@@]1(O)C(=O)CO
InChIInChI=1S/C22H29FO5/c1-12-8-16-15-5-4-13-9-14(25)6-7-19(13,2)21(15,23)17(26)10-20(16,3)22(12,28)18(27)11-24/h6-7,9,12,15-17,24,26,28H,4-5,8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-,15+,16+,17+,19+,20+,21+,22+/m1/s1
InChIKeyUREBDLICKHMUKA-CXSFZGCWSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count57
Chiral Atom Count8
Chiral AtomsC10,C11,C13,C14,C16,C17,C8,C9
Bond Count60
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB01234 Different stereochemistry
NameDexamethasone
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
  • vet_approved
DescriptionAn anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • 1-Dehydro-16alpha-methyl-9alpha-fluorohydrocortisone
  • 1-Dehydro-16α-methyl-9α-fluorohydrocortisone
  • 16alpha-Methyl-9alpha-fluoro-1-dehydrocortisol
  • 16α-Methyl-9α-fluoro-1-dehydrocortisol
  • 9alpha-Fluoro-16alpha-methylprednisolone
Salts
  • Dexamethasone acetate
  • Dexamethasone phosphate
  • Dexamethasone sodium phosphate
Brand Names
  • 999 Itch Relief
  • Accufix II Dec Model 033-212
  • Apo-dexamethasone
  • Baycadron
  • Ciprodex
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
Indication<B>Injection:</B> for the treatment of endocrine disorders, rheumatic D=disorders, collagen diseases, dermatologic diseases, allergic statesc, ophthalmic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory diseases, hematologic disorders, neoplastic diseases, edematous states, cerebral edema. <br><B>Ophthalmic ointment and solution:</B> for the treatment of steroid responsive inflammatory conditions of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and anterior segment of the globe. <br><B>Ophthalmic solution only:</B> for the treatment of steroid responsive inflammatory conditions of the external auditory meatus <br><B>Topic cream:</B> for relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses <br><B>Oral aerosol:</B> for the treatment of bronchial asthma and related corticosteroid responsive bronchospastic states intractable to adequate trial of conventional therapy <br><B>Intranasal aerosol:</B> for the treatment of allergic ot inflammatory nasal conditions, and nasal polyps
PharmacologyDexamethasone and its derivatives, dexamethasone sodium phosphate and dexamethasone acetate, are synthetic glucocorticoids. Used for its antiinflammatory or immunosuppressive properties and ability to penetrate the CNS, dexamethasone is used alone to manage cerebral edema and with tobramycin to treat corticosteroid-responsive inflammatory ocular conditions.
Mechanism of actionDexamethasone is a glucocorticoid agonist. Unbound dexamethasone crosses cell membranes and binds with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors. This complex binds to DNA elements (glucocorticoid response elements) which results in a modification of transcription and, hence, protein synthesis in order to achieve inhibition of leukocyte infiltration at the site of inflammation, interference in the function of mediators of inflammatory response, suppression of humoral immune responses, and reduction in edema or scar tissue. The antiinflammatory actions of dexamethasone are thought to involve phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> inhibitory proteins, lipocortins, which control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
Route of administration
  • Auricular (otic)
  • Auricular (otic); Ophthalmic
  • Dental
  • Epidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous
  • Intra-articular
Categories
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antiemetics
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
ATC-Code
  • R01AD03
  • S03CA01
  • S02CA06
  • S01CB01
  • S01BA01
AHFS-Code
  • 52:08.08
  • 68:04.00
CAS number50-02-2
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682