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GA2

9-(1,3-DIHYDROXY-PROPOXYMETHANE)GUANINE

GA2 as free ligands, exist in 2 entries. Example includes: 4DA6 1KI2

Find related ligands: Stereoisomers Similar ligands Chemical Structure Search

View summary at Ligand Expo



Chemical Component Summary

Name9-(1,3-DIHYDROXY-PROPOXYMETHANE)GUANINE
Identifiers2-amino-9-(1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yloxymethyl)-1H-purin-6-one
FormulaC9 H13 N5 O4
Molecular Weight255.23 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESNc1nc2n(COC(CO)CO)cnc2c(=O)[nH]1
InChIInChI=1S/C9H13N5O4/c10-9-12-7-6(8(17)13-9)11-3-14(7)4-18-5(1-15)2-16/h3,5,15-16H,1-2,4H2,(H3,10,12,13,17)
InChIKeyIRSCQMHQWWYFCW-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count31
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count32
Aromatic Bond Count5
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB01004 Different stereochemistry
NameGanciclovir
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
DescriptionAn acyclovir analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • 2-(6-Amino-purin-9-ylmethoxy)-propane-1,3-diol
  • 2-amino-9-((1,3-Dihydroxypropan-2-yloxy)methyl)-1H-purin-6(9H)-one
  • 2-amino-9-((1,3-Dihydroxypropan-2-yloxy)methyl)-3H-purin-6(9H)-one
  • 2-amino-9-((1,3-Dihydroxypropan-2-yloxy)methyl)-9H-purin-6-ol
  • 2-Amino-9-(2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-ethoxymethyl)-1,9-dihydro-purin-6-one
SaltsGanciclovir Sodium
Brand Names
  • Cytovene - Cap 250mg
  • Cytovene - Pws 500mg/10m/-vial IV
  • Cytovene IV
  • Cytovene Inj 500mg/vial
  • Cytovene,
Affected OrganismHuman Herpes Virus
IndicationFor induction and maintenance in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Also used in the treatment of severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, including CMV pneumonia, CMV gastrointestinal disease, and disseminated CMV infections, in immunocompromised patients.
PharmacologyGanciclovir is a synthetic nucleoside analogue of 2'-deoxyguanosine that inhibits replication of herpes viruses both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Sensitive human viruses include cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus -1 and -2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV), however clinical studies have been limited to assessment of efficacy in patients with CMV infection. Ganciclovir is a prodrug that is structurally similar to acyclovir. It inhibits virus replication by its encorporation into viral DNA. This encorporation inhibits dATP and leads to defective DNA, ceasing or retarding the viral machinery required to spread the virus to other cells.
Mechanism of actionGanciclovir's antiviral activity inhibits virus replication. This inhibitory action is highly selective as the drug must be converted to the active form by a virus-encoded cellular enzyme, thymidine kinase (TK). TK catalyzes phosphorylation of ganciclovir to the monophosphate, which is then subsequently converted into the diphosphate by cellular guanylate kinase and into the triphosphate by a number of cellular enzymes. <i>In vitro</i>, ganciclovir triphosphate stops replication of herpes viral DNA. When used as a substrate for viral DNA polymerase, ganciclovir triphosphate competitively inhibits dATP leading to the formation of 'faulty' DNA. This is where ganciclovir triphosphate is incorporated into the DNA strand replacing many of the adenosine bases. This results in the prevention of DNA synthesis, as phosphodiester bridges can longer to be built, destabilizing the strand. Ganciclovir inhibits viral DNA polymerases more effectively than it does cellular polymerase, and chain elongation resumes when ganciclovir is removed.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous
  • Intravitreal
  • Ophthalmic
  • Oral
Categories
  • Acyclovir
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antiinfectives
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
ATC-Code
  • J05AB06
  • S01AD09
AHFS-Code08:18.32
CAS number82410-32-0

Drug Targets

NameSequence SearchPharmacological ActionActions
Thymidine kinaseMASYPCHQHASAFDQAARSRGHNNRRTALRPRRQQEATEVRPEQKMPTLL...yesinducer
DNA polymerase catalytic subunitMFSGGGGPLSPGGKSAARAASGFFAPAGPRGASRGPPPCLRQNFYNPYLA...yesinhibitor
yesincorporation into and destabilization
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682