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Chemical Component Summary

NameRETINOL
Identifiers(4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
FormulaC20 H30 O
Molecular Weight286.45 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESC\C(=C/CO)\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C
InChIInChI=1S/C20H30O/c1-16(8-6-9-17(2)13-15-21)11-12-19-18(3)10-7-14-20(19,4)5/h6,8-9,11-13,21H,7,10,14-15H2,1-5H3/b9-6+,12-11+,16-8+,17-13+
InChIKeyFPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count51
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count51
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00162 Different stereochemistry
NameVitamin A
Groups
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
  • vet_approved
DescriptionRetinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
  • all-trans-retinol
  • all-trans-retinyl alcohol
  • all-trans-vitamin A alcohol
  • Retinol
Salts
  • Vitamin A acetate
  • Vitamin A palmitate
Brand Names
  • 400 Vitamin A 10000iu
  • A & C Powder
  • A + D Ointment
  • A + Zinc
  • A Caps 10000 I.U.
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.
PharmacologyVitamin A is effective for the treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-<i>trans</i> retinol or retinol. Vitamin A plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of the proper functioning of the immune system.
Mechanism of actionVision:Vitamin A (all-<i>trans</i> retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-<i>cis</i>-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-<i>cis</i>-retinal. 11-<i>cis</i>-retinal functions in the retina in the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. 11-<i>cis</i>-retinal, while attached to opsin in rhodopsin is isomerized to all-<i>trans</i>-retinal by light. This is the event that triggers the nerve impulse to the brain which allows for the perception of light. All-<i>trans</i>-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-<i>trans</i>-retinol. All-<i>trans</i>-retinol is isomerized to 11-<i>cis</i>-retinol in the dark, and then oxidized to 11-<i>cis</i>-retinal. 11-<i>cis</i>-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. Night blindness or defective vision at low illumination results from a failure to re-synthesize 11-<i>cis</i> retinal rapidly. <br/>Epithelial differentiation: The role of Vitamin A in epithelial differentiation, as well as in other physiological processes, involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.
Route of administration
  • Intramuscular
  • Intravenous
  • Oral
  • Topical
Categories
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Alkenes
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antioxidants
ATC-Code
  • R01AX02
  • D10AD02
  • A11CA01
  • S01XA02
AHFS-Code88:04.00
CAS number68-26-8
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682