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Chemical Component Summary

NameTHEOPHYLLINE
Identifiers1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione
FormulaC7 H8 N4 O2
Molecular Weight180.16 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESCn1c2nc[nH]c2c(=O)n(C)c1=O
InChIInChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-5-4(8-3-9-5)6(12)11(2)7(10)13/h3H,1-2H3,(H,8,9)
InChIKeyZFXYFBGIUFBOJW-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count21
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count22
Aromatic Bond Count10
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00277 Different stereochemistry
NameTheophylline
Groupsapproved
DescriptionA methylxanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Mechanistically, theophylline acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, adenosine receptor blocker, and histone deacetylase activator. Theophylline is marketed under several brand names such as Uniphyl and Theochron, and it is indicated mainly for asthma, bronchospasm, and COPD.
Synonyms
  • 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione
  • 1,3-dimethylxanthine
  • Theophyllin
  • Theophylline anhydrous
  • Theophylline, anhydrous
SaltsTheophylline sodium glycinate
Brand Names
  • Apo-theo ER
  • Apo-theo-LA Srt 100mg
  • Apo-theo-LA Srt 200mg
  • Apo-theo-LA Srt 300mg
  • Elixir De Theophylline
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the treatment of the symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction associated with chronic asthma and other chronic lung diseases, such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
PharmacologyTheophylline, an xanthine derivative chemically similar to caffeine and theobromine, is used to treat asthma and bronchospasm. Theophylline has two distinct actions in the airways of patients with reversible (asthmatic) obstruction; smooth muscle relaxation (i.e., bronchodilation) and suppression of the response of the airways to stimuli (i.e., non-bronchodilator prophylactic effects).
Mechanism of actionTheophylline relaxes the smooth muscle of the bronchial airways and pulmonary blood vessels and reduces airway responsiveness to histamine, methacholine, adenosine, and allergen. Theophylline competitively inhibits type III and type IV phosphodiesterase (PDE), the enzyme responsible for breaking down cyclic AMP in smooth muscle cells, possibly resulting in bronchodilation. Theophylline also binds to the adenosine A2B receptor and blocks adenosine mediated bronchoconstriction. In inflammatory states, theophylline activates histone deacetylase to prevent transcription of inflammatory genes that require the acetylation of histones for transcription to begin.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous
  • Oral
Categories
  • Alkaloids
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents
  • Autonomic Agents
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Cardiovascular Agents
ATC-Code
  • R03DA54
  • R03DA74
  • R03DB04
  • R03DA04
AHFS-Code86:16.00
CAS number58-55-9
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682