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Chemical Component Summary

NameTYROSINE
Identifiers(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
FormulaC9 H11 N O3
Molecular Weight181.19 g/mol
TypeL-PEPTIDE LINKING
Isomeric SMILESN[C@@H](Cc1ccc(O)cc1)C(O)=O
InChIInChI=1S/C9H11NO3/c10-8(9(12)13)5-6-1-3-7(11)4-2-6/h1-4,8,11H,5,10H2,(H,12,13)/t8-/m0/s1
InChIKeyOUYCCCASQSFEME-QMMMGPOBSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count48
Chiral Atom Count1
Chiral AtomsCA
Bond Count24
Aromatic Bond Count6
Leaving AtomsOXT,H2,HXT

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00135 Different stereochemistry
NameL-Tyrosine
Groups
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
DescriptionA non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from phenylalanine. It is also the precursor of epinephrine; thyroid hormones; and melanin.
Synonyms
  • (−)-α-amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
  • (2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
  • (S)-(-)-Tyrosine
  • (S)-2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid
  • (S)-3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)alanine
Brand Names
  • Aminosyn
  • Aminosyn 10%
  • Aminosyn 10% W Electrolytes
  • Aminosyn 3.5% M
  • Aminosyn 5%
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationTyrosine is claimed to act as an effective antidepressant, however results are mixed. Tyrosine has also been claimed to reduce stress and combat narcolepsy and chronic fatigue, however these claims have been refuted by some studies.
PharmacologyTyrosine is a nonessential amino acid synthesized in the body from phenylalanine. Tyrosine is critical for the production of the body's proteins, enzymes and muscle tissue. Tyrosine is a precursor to the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. It can act as a mood elevator and an anti-depressant. It may improve memory and increase mental alertness. Tyrosine aids in the production of melanin and plays a critical role in the production of thyroxin (thyroid hormones). Tyrosine deficiencies are manifested by hypothyroidism, low blood pressure and low body temperature. Supplemental tyrosine has been used to reduce stress and combat narcolepsy and chronic fatigue.
Mechanism of actionTyrosine is produced in cells by hydroxylating the essential amino acid phenylalanine. This relationship is much like that between cysteine and methionine. Half of the phenylalanine required goes into the production of tyrosine; if the diet is rich in tyrosine itself, the requirements for phenylalanine are reduced by about 50%. The mechanism of L-tyrosine's antidepressant activity can be accounted for by the precursor role of L-tyrosine in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. Elevated brain norepinephrine and dopamine levels are thought to be associated with antidepressant effects.
Route of administrationIntravenous
Categories
  • Amino Acids
  • Amino Acids, Aromatic
  • Amino Acids, Cyclic
  • Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
  • Dietary Supplements
CAS number60-18-4
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682