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Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients. [PubChem]
Ketoderm Cream 2%
Nizoral - 2%
Nizoral Cream 2%
Nizoral Oral Suspension 20mg/ml
Nizoral Shp 2%
Nizoral Tablets 200mg
Nu-ketocon Tablets - 200mg
For the treatment of the following systemic fungal infections: candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral thrush, candiduria, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.
Ketoconazole, like clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole, is an imidazole antifungal agent.
Mechanism of action
Ketoconazole interacts with 14-α demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme necessary for the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol. This results in inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and increased fungal cellular permeability. Other mechanisms may involve the inhibition of endogenous respiration, interaction with membrane phospholipids, inhibition of yeast transformation to mycelial forms, inhibition of purine uptake, and impairment of triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis. Ketoconazole can also inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane and sterols such as aldosterone, cortisol, and testosterone.
Route of administration
14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors
Antiinfectives for Systemic Use
Antimycotics for Systemic Use
Chemical Actions and Uses
Combined Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors (weak)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2A6 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors (moderate)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors (moderate)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors (moderate)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Inhibitors (strong)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Substrates
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Metabolic Side Effects of Drugs and Substances
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Physiological Effects of Drugs
QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying)
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison
T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682