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Chemical Component Summary

NameCHOLINE ION
Identifiers2-hydroxyethyl-trimethyl-azanium
FormulaC5 H14 N O
Molecular Weight104.17 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESC[N+](C)(C)CCO
InChIInChI=1S/C5H14NO/c1-6(2,3)4-5-7/h7H,4-5H2,1-3H3/q+1
InChIKeyOEYIOHPDSNJKLS-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge1
Atom Count21
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count20
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00122 Stereoisomeric match
NameCholine
Groups
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
DescriptionA basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • Bilineurine
  • Choline
  • Choline ion
  • N-trimethylethanolamine
  • N,N,N-trimethylethanol-ammonium
Salts
  • Choline bitartrate
  • Choline salicylate
Brand Names
  • Advanced 2000 Capsules
  • Alertonic
  • American Eagle Energizer Plus Vitamin Supplement Drink
  • American Plus Energy & Vitamin Drink
  • B 50 Capsules
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacologyThis compound is needed for good nerve conduction throughout the CNS (central nervous system) as it is a precursor to acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is also needed for gallbladder regulation, liver function and lecithin (a key lipid) formation. Choline also aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism and prevents excessive fat build up in the liver. Choline has been used to mitigate the effects of Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Choline deficiencies may result in excessive build-up of fat in the liver, high blood pressure, gastric ulcers, kidney and liver dysfunction and stunted growth.
Mechanism of actionCholine is a major part of the polar head group of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine's role in the maintenance of cell membrane integrity is vital to all of the basic biological processes: information flow, intracellular communication and bioenergetics. Inadequate choline intake would negatively affect all these processes. Choline is also a major part of another membrane phospholipid, sphingomyelin, also important for the maintenance of cell structure and function. It is noteworthy and not surprising that choline deficiency in cell culture causes apoptosis or programmed cell death. This appears to be due to abnormalities in cell membrane phosphatidylcholine content and an increase in ceramide, a precursor, as well as a metabolite, of sphingomyelin. Ceramide accumulation, which is caused by choline deficiency, appears to activate Caspase, a type of enzyme that mediates apoptosis. Betaine or trimethylglycine is derived from choline via an oxidation reaction. Betaine is one of the factors that maintains low levels of homocysteine by resynthesizing L-methionine from homocysteine. Elevated homocysteine levels are a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis, as well as other cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Acetylcholine is one of the major neurotransmitters and requires choline for its synthesis. Adequate acetylcholine levels in the brain are believed to be protective against certain types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease.
Route of administration
  • Dental; Topical
  • Oral
Categories
  • Acids, Carbocyclic
  • Alcohols
  • Amines
  • Amino Alcohols
  • Ammonium Compounds
ATC-CodeN02BA03
AHFS-Code
  • 56:24.00
  • 88:08.00
  • 88:30.00*
CAS number62-49-7
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682