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Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the placenta. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (receptors, estrogen) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized. [PubChem]
For the treatment of urogenital symptoms associated with post-menopausal atrophy of the vagina (such as dryness, burning, pruritus and dyspareunia) and/or the lower urinary tract (urinary urgency and dysuria).
Estradiol, the principal intracellular human estrogen, is substantially more active than its metabolites, estrone and estriol, at the cellular level.
Mechanism of action
Estradiol enters target cells freely (e.g., female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) and interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.
Route of administration
Chemical Actions and Uses
Contraceptive Agents, Female
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors (weak)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Substrates
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Substrates
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Substrates
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Substrates
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Inducers (weak)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Substrates
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
Genito Urinary System and Sex Hormones
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Progestogens and Estrogens, Sequential Preparations
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison
T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682