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GGL

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMIC ACID

GGL is found in 13 entries

GGL in polymers: 6 entries. Examples include: 1AXD 5BPU 1FAV

GGL as free ligands, exist in 7 entries. Example includes: 2M5Q 5EYF 5CNK

Find related ligands: Stereoisomers Similar ligands Chemical Structure Search

View summary at Ligand Expo



Chemical Component Summary

NameGAMMA-L-GLUTAMIC ACID
Identifiers(2S)-2-azanylpentanedioic acid
FormulaC5 H9 N O4
Molecular Weight147.13 g/mol
TypeL-gamma-peptide, C-delta linking
Isomeric SMILESN[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChIInChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChIKeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count19
Chiral Atom Count1
Chiral AtomsCA
Bond Count18
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00142 Stereoisomeric match
NameL-Glutamic Acid
Groupsnutraceutical
DescriptionA peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-Glutamic acid
  • Glu
  • Glutamic acid
Brand Names
  • Aminosyn II
  • Aminosyn II 10%
  • Aminosyn II 10% With Electrolytes
  • Aminosyn II 15%
  • Aminosyn II 5% Inj
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationConsidered to be nature's "Brain food" by improving mental capacities; helps speed the healing of ulcers; gives a "lift" from fatigue; helps control alcoholism, schizophrenia and the craving for sugar.
PharmacologyIn addition to being one of the building blocks in protein synthesis, it is the most widespread neurotransmitter in brain function, as an excitatory neurotransmitter and as a precursor for the synthesis of GABA in GABAergic neurons.
Mechanism of actionGlutamate activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The ionotropic ones being non-NMDA (AMPA and kainate) and NMDA receptors. Free glutamic acid cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable quantities; instead it is converted into L-glutamine, which the brain uses for fuel and protein synthesis. It is conjectured that glutamate is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain, though excessive amounts may cause neuronal damage associated in diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease. Also, the drug phencyclidine (more commonly known as PCP) antagonizes glutamate at the NMDA receptor, causing behavior reminiscent of schizophrenia. Glutamate in action is extremely difficult to study due to its transient nature.
Route of administrationIntravenous
Categories
  • Amino Acids
  • Amino Acids, Acidic
  • Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic
  • Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
  • Dietary Supplements
AHFS-Code40:04.00
CAS number56-86-0

Drug Targets

NameSequence SearchPharmacological ActionActions
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1MVGLLLFFFPAIFLEVSLLPRSPGRKVLLAGASSQRSVARMDGDVIIGAL...unknown
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrialMLQVHRTGLGRLGVSLSKGLHHKAVLAVRREDVNAWERRAPLAPKHIKGI...unknown
Glutamine synthetaseMTTSASSHLNKGIKQVYMSLPQGEKVQAMYIWIDGTGEGLRCKTRTLDSE...unknown
Glutamate decarboxylase 2MASPGSGFWSFGSEDGSGDSENPGTARAWCQVAQKFTGGIGNKLCALLYG...unknown
Glutamate receptor 4MRIISRQIVLLFSGFWGLAMGAFPSSVQIGGLFIRNTDQEYTAFRLAIFL...unknown
View More
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682