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Chemical Component Summary

NameGLYCINE
Identifiers2-aminoethanoic acid
FormulaC2 H5 N O2
Molecular Weight75.07 g/mol
TypePEPTIDE LINKING
Isomeric SMILESNCC(O)=O
InChIInChI=1S/C2H5NO2/c3-1-2(4)5/h1,3H2,(H,4,5)
InChIKeyDHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count20
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count9
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00145 Stereoisomeric match
NameGlycine
Groups
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
  • vet_approved
DescriptionA non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • Aminoacetic acid
  • Aminoessigsaeure
  • Aminoethanoic acid
  • G
  • Gly
Brand Names
  • Aminoderm Poudre
  • Aminosyn
  • Aminosyn 10%
  • Aminosyn 10% W Electrolytes
  • Aminosyn 3.5% M
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationSupplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
PharmacologyHelps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.
Mechanism of actionIn the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia. <br/>Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous
  • Irrigation
  • Oral
  • Topical
Categories
  • Amino Acids
  • Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
  • Blood and Blood Forming Organs
  • Blood Substitutes and Perfusion Solutions
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
ATC-CodeB05CX03
AHFS-Code40:36.00
CAS number56-40-6

Drug Targets

NameSequence SearchPharmacological ActionActions
Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 1MILLNNSHKLLALYKSLARSIPESLKVYGSVYHINHGNPFNMEVLVDSWP...unknown
5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrialMESVVRRCPFLSRVPQAFLQKAGKSLLFYAQNCPKMMEVGAKPAPRALST...unknown
Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1MSGGDTRAAIARPRMAAAHGPVAPSSPEQVTLLPVQRSFFLPPFSGATPS...unknown
Glycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrialMLRVRCLRGGSRGAEAVHYIGSRLGRTLTGWVQRTFQSTQAATASSRNSC...unknown
Glycine cleavage system H protein, mitochondrialMALRVVRSVRALLCTLRAVPSPAAPCPPRPWQLGVGAVRTLRTGPALLSV...unknown
View More
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682