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Chemical Component Summary

NameINDOMETHACIN
Identifiers2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)carbonyl-5-methoxy-2-methyl-indol-3-yl]ethanoic acid
FormulaC19 H16 Cl N O4
Molecular Weight357.79 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESCOc1ccc2n(C(=O)c3ccc(Cl)cc3)c(C)c(CC(O)=O)c2c1
InChIInChI=1S/C19H16ClNO4/c1-11-15(10-18(22)23)16-9-14(25-2)7-8-17(16)21(11)19(24)12-3-5-13(20)6-4-12/h3-9H,10H2,1-2H3,(H,22,23)
InChIKeyCGIGDMFJXJATDK-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count41
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count43
Aromatic Bond Count16
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00328 Stereoisomeric match
NameIndomethacin
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
DescriptionIndomethacin is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent (NSAIA) with antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. Its pharmacological effect is thought to be mediated through inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for catalyzes the rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway.
Synonyms
  • {1-[(4-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl}acetic acid
  • 1-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-acetic acid
  • Aconip
  • Indocin
  • Indometacin
SaltsIndomethacin sodium
Brand Names
  • Apo Indomethacin Cap 25mg
  • Apo Indomethacin Cap 50mg
  • Ftp-indomethacin
  • Indocid Cap 25mg
  • Indocid Cap 50mg
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis.
PharmacologyIndomethacin, a NSAIA, with analgesic and antipyretic properties exerts its pharmacological effects by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins involved in pain, fever, and inflammation. Indomethacin inhibits the catalytic activity of the COX enzymes, the enzymes responsible for catalyzing the rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway. Indomethacin is known to inhibit two well-characterized isoforms of COX, COX-1 and COX-2, with greater selectivity for COX-1. COX-1 is a constitutively expressed enzyme that is involved in gastric mucosal protection, platelet and kidney function. It catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (PG) G2 and PGG2 to PGH2. COX-1 is involved in the synthesis pathways of PGE2, PGD2, PDF2a, PGI2 (also known as prostacyclin) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). COX-2 is constitutively expressed and highly inducible by inflammatory stimuli. It is found in the central nervous system, kidneys, uterus and other organs. It also catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 and PGG2 to PGH2. In the COX-2-mediated pathway, PGH2 is subsequently converted to PGE2 and PGI2 (also known as prostacyclin). PGE2 is involved in mediating inflammation, pain and fever. Decreasing levels of PGE2 leads to decreased inflammation.
Mechanism of actionIndomethacin is a prostaglandin G/H synthase (also known as cyclooxygenase or COX) inhibitor that acts on both prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and -2). Prostaglandin G/H synthase catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to a number of prostaglandins involved in fever, pain, swelling, inflammation, and platelet aggregation. Indomethacin antagonizes COX by binding to the upper portion of the active site, preventing its substrate, arachidonic acid, from entering the active site. Indomethacin, unlike other NSAIDs, also inhibits phospholipase A2, the enzyme responsible for releasing arachidonic acid from phospholipids. Indomethacin is more selective for COX-1 than COX-2, which accounts for its increased adverse gastric effects relative to other NSAIDs. COX-1 is required for maintaining the protective gastric mucosal layer. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of indomethacin occur as a result of decreased prostaglandin synthesis. Its antipyretic effects may be due to action on the hypothalamus, resulting in an increased peripheral blood flow, vasodilation, and subsequent heat dissipation.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous
  • Ophthalmic
  • Oral
  • Rectal
Categories
  • Analgesics
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antirheumatic Agents
ATC-Code
  • S01CC02
  • M02AA23
  • M01AB01
  • M01AB51
  • S01BC01
AHFS-Code28:08.04.92
CAS number53-86-1
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682