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Chemical Component Summary

NameN-HYDROXYUREA
Identifiershydroxyurea
FormulaC H4 N2 O2
Molecular Weight76.06 g/mol
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESNC(=O)NO
InChIInChI=1S/CH4N2O2/c2-1(4)3-5/h5H,(H3,2,3,4)
InChIKeyVSNHCAURESNICA-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count9
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count8
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB01005 Stereoisomeric match
NameHydroxyurea
Groupsapproved
DescriptionAn antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • Carbamohydroxamic Acid
  • Carbamohydroximic Acid
  • Carbamoyl Oxime
  • Carbamyl Hydroxamate
  • Hidroxicarbamida
Brand Names
  • Apo-hydroxyurea
  • Droxia
  • Hydrea
  • Hydrea Cap 500mg
  • Hydroxyurea
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor management of melanoma, resistant chronic myelocytic leukemia, and recurrent, metastatic, or inoperable carcinoma of the ovary and Sickle-cell anemia.
PharmacologyHydroxyurea has dose-dependent synergistic activity with cisplatin <i>in vitro</i>. <i>In vivo</i> Hydroxyurea showed activity in combination with cisplatin against the LX-1 and CALU-6 human lung xenografts, but minimal activity was seen with the NCI-H460 or NCI-H520 xenografts. Hydroxyurea was synergistic with cisplatin in the Lewis lung murine xenograft. Sequential exposure to Hydroxyurea 4 hours before cisplatin produced the greatest interaction.
Mechanism of actionHydroxyurea is converted to a free radical nitroxide (NO) in vivo, and transported by diffusion into cells where it quenches the tyrosyl free radical at the active site of the M2 protein subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, inactivating the enzyme. The entire replicase complex, including ribonucleotide reductase, is inactivated and DNA synthesis is selectively inhibited, producing cell death in S phase and synchronization of the fraction of cells that survive. Repair of DNA damaged by chemicals or irradiation is also inhibited by hydroxyurea, offering potential synergy between hydroxyurea and radiation or alkylating agents. Hydroxyurea also increases the level of fetal hemoglobin, leading to a reduction in the incidence of vasoocclusive crises in sickle cell anemia. Levels of fetal hemoglobin increase in response to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) by hydroxyurea-derived NO.
Route of administrationOral
Categories
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents
  • Antisickling Agents
  • Chemical Actions and Uses
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors
ATC-CodeL01XX05
AHFS-Code10:00.00
CAS number127-07-1

Drug Targets

NameSequence SearchPharmacological ActionActions
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunitMHVIKRDGRQERVMFDKITSRIQKLCYGLNMDFVDPAQITMKVIQGLYSG...yesinhibitor
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682