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Caspase-4

UniProtKB accession:  P49662
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Go to UniProtKB:  P49662
UniProtKB description:  Inflammatory caspase that acts as the effector of the non-canonical inflammasome by mediating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pyroptosis (PubMed:25119034, PubMed:26375003, PubMed:34671164, PubMed:32109412, PubMed:37001519). Also indirectly activates the NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasomes (PubMed:7797510, PubMed:23516580, PubMed:26375003, PubMed:32109412). Acts as a thiol protease that cleaves a tetrapeptide after an Asp residue at position P1: catalyzes cleavage of CGAS, GSDMD and IL18 (PubMed:7797510, PubMed:15326478, PubMed:23516580, PubMed:26375003, PubMed:28314590, PubMed:32109412). Effector of the non-canonical inflammasome independently of NLRP3 inflammasome and CASP1: the non-canonical inflammasome promotes pyroptosis through GSDMD cleavage without involving secretion of cytokine IL1B and IL18 (PubMed:25121752, PubMed:25119034, PubMed:26375003, PubMed:31268602, PubMed:32109412). In the non-canonical inflammasome, CASP4 is activated by direct binding to LPS without the need of an upstream sensor (PubMed:25121752, PubMed:25119034, PubMed:29520027). LPS-binding promotes CASP4 activation and CASP4-mediated cleavage of GSDMD, followed by pyroptosis of infected cells and their extrusion into the gut lumen (PubMed:25121752, PubMed:25119034). Also indirectly promotes secretion of mature cytokines (IL1A, IL18 and HMGB1) downstream of GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis via activation of the NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasomes (PubMed:26375003, PubMed:32109412). Involved in NLRP3-dependent CASP1 activation and IL1B and IL18 secretion in response to non-canonical activators, such as UVB radiation or cholera enterotoxin (PubMed:22246630, PubMed:23516580, PubMed:24879791, PubMed:25964352, PubMed:26173988, PubMed:26174085, PubMed:26508369). Involved in NLRP6 inflammasome-dependent activation in response to lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell-wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, which leads to CASP1 activation and IL1B and IL18 secretion (PubMed:33377178). Involved in LPS-induced IL6 secretion; this activity may not require caspase enzymatic activity (PubMed:26508369). The non-canonical inflammasome is required for innate immunity to cytosolic, but not vacuolar, bacteria (By similarity). Plays a crucial role in the restriction of S.typhimurium replication in colonic epithelial cells during infection (PubMed:25121752, PubMed:25964352). Pyroptosis limits bacterial replication, while cytokine secretion promotes the recruitment and activation of immune cells and triggers mucosal inflammation (PubMed:25121752, PubMed:26375003, PubMed:25964352). May also act as an activator of adaptive immunity in dendritic cells, following activation by oxidized phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, an oxidized phospholipid (oxPAPC) (By similarity). Involved in cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and by treatment with cytotoxic APP peptides found in Alzheimer's patient brains (PubMed:15123740, PubMed:22246630, PubMed:23661706). Cleavage of GSDMD is not strictly dependent on the consensus cleavage site but depends on an exosite interface on CASP4 that recognizes and binds the Gasdermin-D, C-terminal (GSDMD-CT) part (PubMed:32109412). Catalyzes cleavage and maturation of IL18 (PubMed:15326478). In contrast, it does not directly process IL1B (PubMed:7743998, PubMed:7797592, PubMed:7797510). During non-canonical inflammasome activation, cuts CGAS and may play a role in the regulation of antiviral innate immune activation (PubMed:28314590).
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